The clown knife fish (Chitala ornata) is an exotic and mysterious freshwater species renowned for its unique, knife-like body shape. The clown knife fish has captivated aquarists and anglers alike with an almost prehistoric appearance. However, there is much more to this fish than its striking looks.
In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore everything there is to know about clown knife fish. From their natural history and behavior to keeping them in aquariums, this is your one-stop guide to unraveling the mysteries of this marvelous fish. By the end, you’ll be armed with in-depth knowledge to appreciate the splendor of the clown knife fish. So let’s dive right in!
Overview and Natural History
Native to freshwater habitats in Southeast Asia, the clown knife fish is found in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. They thrive in sluggish rivers, flooded forests, lakes and swamplands. As nocturnal predators, they cruise the shadows hunting for prey.
Description: The clown knife fish has an incredibly distinctive shape. Their body is long, straight and knife-like. The head is flattened and the mouth slopes upwards. The eyes are small and set high on the head. Their most striking feature is the long anal fin that runs along the underside. Coloration is a bronze, silver or gray background with a scattering of round, black spots. Wild specimens can reach up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) long and weigh as much as 11 lbs.
Diet: They are voracious predators, feeding on any prey they can capture and swallow whole. Fish, crustaceans, frogs, snakes and even birds are all on the menu.
Behavior: Clown knife fish are generally solitary and territorial as adults. They are active at dusk, dawn and throughout the night. During the day, they rest under logs and dense vegetation. Young fish may form small schools.
Reproduction: Spawning happens in flooded forests and among vegetation. The parents show no care for eggs or fry.
Conservation: Stable populations exist throughout their native range. They are abundant in some areas but may be declining in others due to habitat loss. Not currently considered threatened.
- The clown knife fish gets its name from its knife-like body shape. “Clown” refers to the scattered black spots.
- It can reach lengths over 1 meter (3 feet), making it one of the largest freshwater fish species.
- This fish can swim backwards or forwards with ease. Its muscular anal fin allows for precise maneuvering.
- Wild specimens may live up to 15 years. With good care, captive fish can potentially live longer.
- Young fish under 4 inches long tend to form schools near submerged logs and plants.
- Clown knife fish can breathe air directly from the surface, allowing survival in low-oxygen waters.
- At night, their eyes glow due to a reflective layer of cells. This helps them see better while hunting.
- Special electroreceptor cells help them detect prey in murky water. They can sense electric fields generated by living animals.
- In Thailand, this fish is known as Pla Tap Tim. It’s a popular food fish, harvested from the wild.
- Its natural range extends into the lower Mekong basin of Vietnam and Cambodia.
Keeping Clown Knife Fish in Aquariums
The clown knife fish is a staple species in large public aquariums. They are far less common in home aquariums simply due to their enormous adult size and tank requirements. However, medium to large hobbyist systems can successfully house younger fish. Here is a guide to keeping clown knife fish in captivity:
- Tank Size: A minimum of 125 gallons is required for long-term care of an adult. Bigger is always better as these fish can exceed 3 feet in length.
- Water Conditions: Slightly acidic to neutral pH of 6.5-7.2. Temperature range of 75-82°F. Moderate hardness around 5-12 dH.
- Tankmates: Best kept with similar-sized fish that won’t fit in their mouth. Some options are giant gourami, oscars, datnoid, arowana and largemouth bass. Avoid small, aggressive fish.
- Decoration: Provide plenty of open swimming room. Driftwood, rock caves and dense plants along the sides create a natural look and give shelter. Subdued lighting is ideal.
- Feeding: Insanely easy to feed in captivity. Offer live, fresh dead and frozen foods like fish, shrimp, krill, worms, beef heart. May accept pellet foods as well.
- Breeding: Breeding clown knife fish remains elusive. Eggs have reportedly been spawned in large public aquariums but survival rates are low. Commercial breeding has not yet been achieved.
- Basic Care: Performs best with clean, well-filtered water and consistent parameters. Partial weekly water changes help maintain water quality. Make sure tank size is adequate as fish grows.
With their rigorous space requirements, clown knife fish are only suitable for dedicated hobbyists who can provide proper housing. This limits their availability in the aquarium trade. Prices are generally $40-$60 for 4-6 inch juveniles. Advanced planning and commitment is needed to keep clown knife fish.
Threats and Invasiveness
Unfortunately, clown knife fish have shown to be highly invasive when introduced outside their native range. Most notably, breeding populations are now established in Florida and threaten native species. Here’s an overview of the issues surrounding introduced clown knife fish:
- Florida Population – First reported in Broward County in 1985. Likely an accidental or intentional release by fish farmers or aquarists. The population has spread to neighboring counties.
- No Natural Predators – Lacking native predators, the clown knife fish feeds and grows unchecked in Florida’s waters. Their massive size gives them an advantage over smaller native species.
- Competition and Predation – As an apex predator, they compete with and prey heavily upon native fish, crustaceans and other animals. Juveniles are especially threatening to small fish and invertebrates.
- Difficult Eradication – Due to their elusive nature, ability to tolerate poor conditions and likelihood of ongoing releases, the clown knife fish is now firmly established in South Florida. Complete eradication is improbable.
- Warning to Aquarists – Never release unwanted aquarium fish into public waterways. Clown knife fish should be traded, sold or humanely euthanized if they outgrow your tank. Escapees can contribute to invasive spread.
Going forward, scientists are trying to determine the impacts of invasive clown knife fish in Florida. Their predatory behavior and rapid growth allows them to thrive, to the detriment of native species. Unfortunately, this damaging pattern has been repeated with other aquarium releases like lionfish and Asian carp. Responsible fish keeping is crucial to avoiding future issues.
Fishing for Clown Knife Fish
The clown knife fish offers a unique opportunity for specialty anglers looking for an exotic catch. Their size, power and nocturnal habits make them a challenging adversary. Though not common as a game fish, they have the potential to grow in popularity among freshwater fishing enthusiasts in Southeast Asia.
- Best Locations – For the best chance at hooking a wild clown knife fish, concentrate efforts in Thailand and Cambodia. Focus on Mekong basin rivers, reservoirs, lakes and flooded forests during the wet season.
- Time of Day – Target overnight and twilight hours when most active. Pre-dawn is a prime time to find them patrolling the shallows for food.
- Equipment – Medium to heavy spinning tackle or baitcast gear with 40-60 lb braided line. A strong hook and steel leader are essential. Roaming open water calls for a float for bite detection.
- Bait – Best baits are live fish like tilapia, small carp or goldfish. They also take freshwater shrimp, cut fish strips, chicken liver and prepared dough baits for catfish.
- Technique – Fishing or drifting likely ambush points and structure yields the most clown knife fish. They may also be lurking under vegetation alongside river banks. Patiently wait for a big hit.
- Landing Tips – Stay wary of the sharp teeth. A scoop net helps subdue fish once reeled close to prevent biting. Needle-nose pliers allow easy hook removal.
- Documentation – Be sure to snap photos and record accurate measurements for trophy-sized specimens before release. Obtain any necessary permits and follow local fishing regulations.
For intrepid anglers, seeking out the mysterious clown knife fish is a great excuse to venture into the wild fishing grounds of Southeast Asia. Always practice responsible catch and release fishing for these vulnerable giants.
Aquarium Behavior and Personality
The clown knife fish exhibits very intriguing behaviors and personality traits in captivity. The quirks match their unique looks in interacting with tankmates and surroundings. Getting to know your fish individually makes keeping clown knife fish more rewarding.
- Activity Cycles – As mentioned, clown knife fish are primarily nocturnal in the wild. Tank-raised fish often become crepuscular, meaning most active at dawn and dusk. They may adjust to some daytime activity.
- Intelligence – They are one of the more intelligent freshwater species. Numerous accounts exist of clown knife fish trained to feed from their owner’s hand or perform other simple tricks.
- Visual Recognition – It seems clown knifefish can distinguish between individual people. They may become excited when seeing their favorite keeper approach the tank.
- Handling – While hand feeding is possible, clown knife fish should never be handled like a pet. Their teeth can inflict serious lacerations. Netting is the safest option for moving them.
- Predatory Nature – Do not house small tankmates with a clown knife fish. They are skilled hunters and will consume fish that can fit in their mouth.
- Territoriality – Adults become territorial toward conspecifics once they reach reproductive size. Battles for dominance may result in torn fins or injuries.
- Compatibility – Best tankmates are similar-sized, robust fish like their natural neighbors. Giant gourami and redtail catfish make suitable companions. Avoid fin-nipping types.
- Environmental Awareness – They utilize hiding spots, maintain a defined territory and have specific areas they prefer. Rearranging decor may initially confuse them.
- Light Sensitivity – As mentioned, subdued lighting is recommended. If the tank is too brightly lit, they may Act skittish or hide extensively.
- Vocalizations – Listen for grunts and groans, especially during feeding time. Some have reported hearing clown knife fish vocalize outside the tank.
In the proper environment, the clown knife fish exhibits complex behaviors and interactions indicative of high intelligence. Taking the time to understand your fish leads to a more engaging aquarium experience overall.
Breeding and Life Cycle
The prospect of breeding clown knife fish is an exciting yet challenging undertaking. No hobbyist successes exist thus far. However, a handful of public aquariums have documented spawning behavior and rearing of fry. Examination of these cases gives insight into their reproductive biology.
- Sexual Maturity – They likely reach adult size and sexual maturity between 4-6 years of age. Much remains unknown about growth rates and development.
- Mating Behavior – Courting consists of the two fish swimming together, often with the male chasing and nudging the female. Spawning takes place at night.
- Spawning Site – Eggs are broadcast among plants and roots in flooded conditions. No parental care of eggs is exhibited. Clutch may contain 20,000-60,000 eggs.
- Fry Development – If eggs hatch, larvae free swim by day 5. Young fish feed on plankton and microorganisms initially.
- Rearing Fry – Aquarium rearing efforts focus on feeding frequent small meals and maintaining excellent water quality. Even still, survival rate is low.
- Growth Rate – In optimal aquarium conditions, fry may reach 4-5 inches their first year. Maximum growth is achieved by year 4-5. Longevity likely reaches 15 years or more.
- Difficulties – No hormonal manipulation or treatments exist to induce spawning. Broodstock fish must be adult wild imports, which complicate matters. Raising fry past larvae stage remains highly challenging.
Realistically, commercial clown knife fish breeding is a distant goal. But their unique reproductive behaviors warrant further study. Advancements in technology and nutrition may someday allow consistent breeding on a large scale.
Variants and Related Species
Currently, only one recognized species of the clown knife fish exists – Chitala ornata. However, taxonomic classifications continue to be reviewed as more becomes known about this fish. There are some regional variances and closely related species.
- C. ornata – The standard clown knife fish in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Bronze to gray background with scattered black spots. Continuous dorsal fin.
- C. lopis – Proposed separate species found in Indonesia. Separate dorsal fins. Larger black spots concentrated near rear of body. Less common in aquarium trade.
- C. blanci – May be distinct Mekong basin species with more vivid yellow-orange fins and fewer spots on narrower body. Still officially classified as C. ornata by many authorities.
- Albino – All white coloration with pink eyes and fins. Originate from selective breeding programs for color morph. Appear intermittently in trade.
- Leucistic – White coloration while still having dark eyes. Result of random genetic mutation. Very rare.
Distinguishing species and variants remains contentious. But scientific advances may someday clarify proper taxonomy of the ornamental clown knife fish trade. Selectively bred color morphs also offer unique alternatives to the wild forms.
Caring for Clown Knife Fish
Caring for a clown knife fish is rewarding but also carries major responsibilities. Their sheer size and predatory nature make them unsuitable for casual aquarists. Read on for a concise overview of their care requirements.
- Suitable Tank Size – Minimum 125 gallons for an adult. Bigger is always better. They need ample swimming room.
- Water Parameters – Slightly acidic to neutral pH between 6.5-7.2. Temperatures of 75-82°F. Moderate water hardness.
- Tank Setup – Open swimming space plus rock caves and driftwood for hiding. Plants along rear and sides. Dim lighting.
- Tank Maintenance – Weekly partial water changes around 30%. Strong mechanical and biological filtration needed.
- Diet – Hearty feeders that demand variety. Offer krill, shrimp, fish, worms, insects and pellets.
- Health Concerns – Susceptible to parasites like ich if water quality declines. Overall hardy when kept in clean water.
- Tankmates – Large, robust fish that won’t fit in their mouth. Avoid fin nippers. No small fish.
- Behavior – Primarily nocturnal. Adults are solitary and territorial. Handling is dangerous – use nets.
Succeeding with clown knife fish requires committing to their expansive housing needs and meaty diet. They can live over a decade with proper care.
Where to Obtain Clown Knife Fish
Finding available clown knife fish takes some searching. Few fish stores carry them regularly due to their specific needs. Possible purchase options include:
- Online Retailers – Specialty online stores offer shipping on juvenile clown knife fish when in stock. Size ranges from 4-6 inches usually.
- Auctions & Importers – Large fish auctions sometimes have wild-caught clown knife fish in their exotic offerings. Availability varies.
- Fellow Enthusiasts – Connecting with local fish clubs may turn up leads on other hobbyists looking to sell or trade their clown knife fish.
- Public Aquariums – A long shot, but public aquariums occasionally offer surplus fish to private owners able to house them.
- Commercial Breeders – Currently no commercial clown knife fish breeding exists. But if they became farm raised one day, availability would increase.
- Collectors – In areas of Southeast Asia, specialty collectors may be able to secure wild specimens. Ensure legality plus proper importing procedures.
Patience and persistence is required to acquire one of these uncommon giants. Proper planning must also occur to ensure you can accommodate an adult fish before purchasing. But the search is well worth it for serious clown knife fish devotees!
FAQs About Clown Knife Fish
How big of tank do clown knife fish need?
A minimum of 125 gallons is required for one adult fish. Much larger is better to accommodate their potential 3+ foot length.
Do clown knife fish make good pets?
They do not make good traditional pets. Their size and sharp teeth prevent direct handling. But they are intelligent and interact with owners.
What fish can live with clown knife fish?
Tankmates should be similar-sized, robust fish such as giant gourami, redtail catfish, datnoid, oscar, or arowana. Smaller fish become prey.
Can clown knife fish live in ponds?
In their native tropical region, yes. But they cannot withstand cold winters in most climates. Ponds require ample space plus backup system for winter.
How often do clown knife fish eat?
They can be fed daily, often accepting multiple meals daily in captivity. Provide as much food as they’ll consume in 2-3 minutes, 1-2 times daily.
Why did my clown knife fish die suddenly?
Sudden deaths are typically linked to poor water quality. Test your water parameters and perform frequent partial water changes. Proper filtration is vital.
The clown knife fish, a unique and fascinating aquatic creature, is gaining popularity in the aquarium hobby due to their unique shape and freshwater habitat. Despite their complexity, research on taxonomy, reproduction, growth rates, and longevity is still limited. Captive breeding efforts are improving the ability to maintain fish in aquariums.
The clown knife fish presents challenges for fish keeping enthusiasts, as their husbandry is demanding and requires dedicated aquarists. As scientific knowledge expands, so will our appreciation for this magnificent creature. This comprehensive guide provides essential care, biology, and behavior facts about the clown knife fish, aiming to unlock its mysteries and better understand its importance across various habitats.